By the end of the 20th century, the United States dollar was considered the world's most dominant reserve currency, and the world's need for dollars has allowed the United States government as well as Americans to borrow at lower costs, granting them an advantage in excess of 0 billion per year. However, the U. dollar's status as a reserve currency, by increasing in value, hurts U. exporters. The Dutch guilder emerged as a de facto world currency in the 18th century due to unprecedented domination of trade by the Dutch East India Company. However, the development of the modern concept of a reserve currency took place in the mid nineteenth century, with the introduction of national central banks and treasuries and an increasingly integrated global economy.
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